In 1851, on the banks of Brushy Creek, a small community was formed near a large, round rock located in the middle of the creek. This round rock marked a convenient low-water crossing for wagons, horses and cattle. The first postmaster called the community Brushy Creek, but in 1854 the small settlement was renamed Round Rock in honor of this now famous rock. The “round rock” is located near Chisholm Trail Street in the middle of Brushy Creek.

After the Civil War, Jesse Chisholm began to move cattle from South Texas through Round Rock, on the way to Abilene, Kansas. The route he established, which crossed Brushy Creek at the round rock, became known as the Chisholm Trail. Most of the old buildings, including the old Saint Charles Hotel, are still there today. This historic area is now called “Old Town.”

After the Civil War, the major source of income for Texans was cattle. Trail drivers, such as Jesse Chisholm, led their cattle to market in Abilene, Kansas, to be sold for high prices to the eastern markets. The Chisholm Trail was used from 1867 to 1884 and ran from Kansas south to the Rio Grande through Round Rock.

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